The chapter begins by putting dementia in its demographic context, globally and nationally. This highlights two trends: more people living longer and countries like the UK becoming more ethnically diverse. The implications of these trends are discussed in terms of economic, social and public health policy. The middle part focuses on global and national responses to dementia’s increasing importance as a public health issue. WHO publications on this issue are discussed. Nationally, the discussion primarily focuses on the way policy has evolved in England and explains the key points in the National Dementia Strategy and subsequent follow-ups such as the Prime Minister’s Challenge. Links are made between dementia, personalisation, safeguarding and carers’ agendas. The final section of the chapter focuses on legislation; in particular, the Human Rights Act 1998, Care Act 2014, Mental Capacity Act 2005 and 1983 and 2007 Mental Health Acts. The discussion pulls out key points that practitioners need to be aware of – especially the need to balance protecting people with dementia from harm with the need to protect their rights to liberty, independence and choice.