This chapter shows that a multi-pronged and well-coordinated effort by ultra-conservative white thinkers, wealthy entrepreneurs, economists, and politicians was undertaken to attack civil rights, affirmative action, and state support for public education. The emergence of this ultra-conservative neoliberalism in the mid-twentieth century US marked a large-scale rebellion against the rising tide of social equality and federal legislation supporting governmental investment in desegregated public higher education. As a result, the carefully coded language of neoliberalism became the dominant discursive framework to define southern economic development, one mainly led by large corporations. The chapter examines the judicial and legislative history together in the next section, as they were constantly intertwined in societal developments.