ABSTRACT

The lawsuits have attacked contemporary affirmative action programs in higher education admissions, certain voting rights, and the drawing of electoral district maps, four of which reached the Supreme Court since 2009. When local white officials attempted to dilute the black vote there by dividing that district into three white Republican districts, the US Justice Department overturned that undemocratic move, citing Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act. In 2016 alone, the Supreme Court revisited Blum's challenge to affirmative action at the University of Texas at Austin and heard a radical right-wing case, Evenwel v. Abbott regarding electoral representation in which Blum proposed that noncitizens, children, and felons be omitted from the drawing of legislative districts.