Advocates for technological solutions to halt or reverse climate change, discussed in Chapter 17, argue that they can delay or reduce the need for a shift away from fossil fuels, avoiding major economic dislocation. Prominent research institutions and governmental agencies in the United States and other countries are seeking a way to artificially cool the Earth. Critics of geoengineering charge that the proposed solutions are illusory and misdirect attention away from the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.