A goal is the cognitive representation of an end-state that a person selects, commits to, and attempts to achieve. Goals vary in level of difficulty (value, utility) and in specificity. Level energizes behavior and specificity guides behavior. Subgoals motivate goal achievement behavior and also provide feedback about progress toward the goal and a person's self-efficacy. The value or utility of a goal, the probability of achievement, and their combination determines goal selection according to expectancy-value and expected utility theory. Goal achievement behavior proceeds from a to-go perspective—that is, how much is left to be achieved—but also from a to-date perspective—that is, how much has been achieved already. Usually, goal success raises future goals, while failure lowers them. Achievement valence refers to positive emotions that stem from goal achievement.