This chapter discusses language development, speaking, and listening. Communication between infant and parent begins at birth. The chapter includes a chart of the normal stages of language development that infants and toddlers experience. By the time children enter preschool, there is a wide variance in language development between children who are surrounded with language through conversation, pretend play, and quality children’s literature and children who are not surround with these language experiences. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers submerse children in language activities such as pretend play, discussions, and literacy activities in which teachers read quality children’s fiction and nonfiction. The authors of the Common Core State Standards and authors of revised state standards understood the importance of students developing listening and speaking skills that prepare them for college, career, and citizenship. Specific speaking and listening activities that align with the CCSS are explained. Since many revised state standards reflect the CCSS, teachers can modify the activities to meet their state standards. An assessment for English learners is included in the chapter as well as descriptions of assessments based on the CCSS speaking and listening standards that are appropriate for all students.