Phonological awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate various units of sounds in speech; phonemic awareness is the understanding “that words are composed of individual sounds fused together to create units of meaning” (Dangora Erickson & Wharton-McDonald, 2019, p. 477). In past editions of this text phonemic awareness and phonological awareness were used interchangeably. However, since they are distinctly different, this edition will consider the distinct differences. This chapter includes an explanation of the dimensions of phonological awareness and the common phonemes of the English language. Figures list the phonemes shared between English and Spanish and the phonemes that are unique to English. The chapter describes how children become aware of phonemes as they interact with nursery rhymes, poetry, songs, and quality children’s literature. The Common Core State Standards Foundational Skills that highlight phonological awareness are listed. Formal and informal phonological awareness assessments are discussed, with a pre- and posttest instruments in the appendices that can be duplicated and used for classroom use. The “Intervention” section of the chapter explains activities that emphasize syllables, initial sounds, rhymes, oddity, blending, segmenting, deleting, and manipulating. The “Technology” section shares different apps and websites that focus on phonological awareness. The chapter begins and ends with two different classroom scenarios with guiding and reflective questions that can be used for classroom discussions.