ABSTRACT

The foundational skills discussed in Chapters 5–8 are used as students comprehend texts. Additional skills unique to comprehending narrative texts include the following: predicting, inferring, visualizing images, drawing conclusions, summarizing main parts of the story, analyzing story elements (e.g., character, setting, plot, theme, style), synthesizing information from one chapter to the next, and drawing conclusions. This chapter explains how teachers can teach these skills as well as the complex levels of comprehension (literal, lexical, and interpretative). Literal comprehension is the understanding of who, what, when, where; lexical comprehension is the understanding of vocabulary words as used in the story; interpretative comprehension involves students answering what if, how, and why questions. The Common Core State Standards require students to do close readings of narrative texts. This chapter shares classroom scenarios in which teachers are scaffolding students as they determine the author’s perspective, biases, and intent. New to this edition is a section on using diverse texts for the purpose of engaging students in critical literacy studies so they learn how to act on inequities in our society. Also new to this edition is a section on how to read and comprehend graphic novels. The “Intervention” section describes strategies to use before, during, and after reading so students can learn to get a deep meaning of the narrative texts they read. The “Technology” section lists websites and apps that teachers can use to increase students’ comprehension. The chapter begins and ends with two different classroom scenarios with guiding and reflective questions that can be used for classroom discussions.