Identification of students for services is a critical component of providing students with a challenging and appropriate education. Best practices in the identification of gifted and talented learners require the consideration of multiple measures of student achievement and potential. Assessments and procedures should be valid as well as reliable, fair, and based on current research and theory. Checklists, inventories, portfolios, observations, and nominations also provide valuable information. Assessment information relates to the identification process of gifted and talented students, the evaluation of a student's learning, and the evaluation of program effectiveness. It is important to remember that the evaluation of an individual's learning contributes to the evaluation of the effectiveness of a program. Eric's case reveals a middle school student with little emotional and monetary support. Highlighted through Eric's case is the need to evaluate the relationship of teaching and learning outcomes for the gifted and talented.