Teachers and administrators must be aware of the challenges that gifted students may face when accelerating, particularly if they skip an entire academic year. By using formative assessment and other strategies to identify any gaps in knowledge, teachers can help gifted students to succeed. In his seminal work on students who were gifted in science, P. Brandwein indicated that creativity and process play essential roles if one wishes to identify students who are gifted and talented in science. In addition to integrating problem-based learning and science, the components of all problem-based episodes include initiating learning with an ill-structured problem, using the problem to structure the learning agenda, and teacher as metacognitive coach, with important goals of a reformed science curriculum such as learning based on concepts of significance, student-designed experiments, and development of scientific reasoning skills. The Next Generation Science Standards are designed to provide challenging, inquiry based science learning experiences.