The first chapter provided a comprehensive literature review of gender diversity, offering global perspectives and Turkey’s (local) perspective. Global perspectives are abundant in depicting women’s issues by highlighting employment rates, working conditions, and the many other struggles that form critical perspectives of gender diversity and inclusion at the workplace. The local studies are significantly divided as the diversity at the workplace and the diversity at the boardroom. This chapter also attempts to reveal the gaps in the literature and directs attention to cultural, political, and socioeconomic context.