Chapter 1 introduces the topic by situating realism in the national-global debate, defining Russia's realist thinking and describing the book's argument and organization. As the world departs from the West-centered international system, nations across the globe actively engage in discussions of security, survival, and unity under external uncertainty and potential instability. There are many who assess Western International Relations (IR) approaches as “parochial,” not global, and reflecting ethnocentric biases. Russian IR discourse is also increasingly sensitive to these new developments, and since the 2000s, realism has reemerged as the most prominent approach to international relations. Realism prioritizes security, sovereignty, and national interests. Russian realism is both similar to and distinct from that of Western nations. The latter reflects Russia's distinct culture and history and should be assessed on its own terms that is without West-centric expectations, which are widespread in contemporary IR theory.