Chapter 3 focuses on the Russian notion of Derzhava as a historical and theoretical foundation of Russian realist thought. Three ideas have been behind Derzhava: (quasi) religious authority, concentrated political power, and sovereign, independent great power recognized by the outside world of major states. While originating from distinct sources, these ideas have eventually converged by establishing the system of values generally accepted by Russian realist thinkers as moral foundations of their statehood. Russian realists tend to view this foundation as essential for mobilizing internal resources, preserving state capacity for power inside and outside the country, and protecting Russia from foreign threats. At the same time, each historical era has produced ideologically distinct constructs of Derzhava. The nineteenth-century Russia promoted the triad of Orthodox Christianity, Tsar's autocracy, and its popular support by Slav and Orthodox people at home and abroad. The Soviet system was secular and radically different, yet it reproduced the ideas of national values, concentrated authority, and sovereignty/recognition in foreign affairs. Today's Russia defends the notion of an ideologically distinct “state-civilization,” a strong state, patriotism, and great military power.