Chapter 8 reviews criticisms of realist arguments by Russian intellectuals of different ideological convictions. Critics blame realism for its status quo bias in the international system and for indifference to internal freedom. Three groups of critics have been especially prominent. Liberals and socialists have attacked realists for preoccupation with preserving the state-based international system and for insufficient attention given to the country's domestic problems. According to these critics, while defending Derzhava, realists have failed to consider the potential for transforming the international system into one centered on respect for individual freedom and justice and for prioritizing security over internal economic and political development. The third group, supporters of Russia's cultural distinctiveness (Civilizationists) have favored Russia's cultural independence and been critical of realism for lack of attention to the country's values and cultural relations. The chapter introduces each ideological camp and then address both types of criticisms of realism by each of the identified group of critics.