Sen no Rikyū, recognized as the great master of chadō has been written about and discussed in numerous historical essays and novels. It shows how much Japanese are still attracted by Rikyū’s thoughts and aesthetics, as there was even a remake of a movie about Rikyū starring the famous kabuki actor Ichikawa Ebizo. This chapter explores the philosophy of chadō established by Rikyū: Four Principles, wa kei sei jyaku and the seven roles of principle, the concept of one time opportunity (ichigo ichie), and hospitality (omotenashi). It further introduces the Japanese aesthetics in chadō by comparing them to aesthetics in other countries. Readers will also explore how this philosophy of chadō is utilized in the formation of a national identity.