This chapter asks: how can Franz L. Neumann's critical theory help us to understand fascism? It provides some background of Neumann's life and works and shows how in the age of new nationalisms, rising right-wing authoritarianism, and authoritarian capitalism, Neumann's works can help us to understand society based on critical theory. There is a special focus on his essay ”​​​​​​Anxiety and Politics” and the book Behemoth : The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933–1944.