This chapter posits that the issue of technological modernisation is not driven by one discipline. It is a matter of public concern and a problem to be solved by a diverse range of institutions and societal actors. Similarly, technological modernisation is enlightened by several conceptual perspectives. The aim of this chapter is to present the stylised three-stage model used here as a conceptual framework to interpret the empirical findings. This framework draws on much political economy literature about modernisation theories, rents (or who benefits and who does not from modernisation processes), and authoritarian political regimes. It also draws on the expansive literature on innovation systems and evolutionary approaches to economic growth. Finally, Chapter 2 outlines how the author answers the main questions asked in the book.