“Conclusions” brings the book to a close, summarising the main arguments, giving an overview of the book’s contributions and outlines possible avenues for further research. The book took a political economy perspective and neo-Schumpeterian approach to innovation and focused on the political economy of technological modernisation in Russia. More specifically, it examined how Russia has tried to ignite technological innovation since the end of the Second World War. The focus of the book was on Russia’s technological modernisation programme that began in the first decade of the 21st century with the aim of diversifying the economy to provide for long-term growth based not solely on natural resources. Its wider significance is that it examines how authoritarian states with weak institutions – as exemplified by the case of Russia – govern science, technology, and innovation as tools of modernisation policy.