The populations on whose behalf, and because of whose general wish this separation is primarily considered desirable, are not homogeneous in the sense implied by the word "nation." It was anticipated that everything would be settled by the Peace Conference. The reconciliation of Arab aspirations and European "interests" was to be effected by the invention of the Mandate system. The recognition of the Mandatory principle was undoubtedly a great advance in the theory of international relations. It is to be deeply regretted that the rivalries of the Great Powers and their apparent difficulty in realizing a change of method as well as form has greatly hindered the advance in practice. The allocation of the Mandates was performed by the Council of the Principal Allied Powers at San Remo in April 1920 on the basis of the division of the Arab regions diplomatically settled between them during the war.