The relationship of the U.S. with ‘Israel’ is characterised as an alliance relationship, whose foundations derive in their view from the religious, cultural, technological, and most importantly strategic dimensions, and through this relationship, Israel was able to build a hegemonic power in the Middle East. The development of the relationship was framed against the emergence of new regimes in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon in the 1950s; the Six-Day War; Black September; the 1978 Camp David Accords; the 1979 Iranian Revolution; the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War; Lebanon’s various civil wars; and the First and Second Intifadas. Therefore, this chapter engages also the relationship across five distinct phases from 1948 until the present.