In this opening chapter, we first elucidate the concepts of culture and curriculum and the relationship between the two. We then examine the concept of globalization and its impact on localization by analyzing four country-specific case examples to illustrate their unique curriculum implementation processes. Of particular relevance to the analysis is the emergence of the concepts of “glocalization” and “curriculum hybridization” in the context of the globalization-localization dynamics. Finally, we present three important theoretical frameworks for analyzing how globally endorsed early childhood curriculum (ECC) may or may not be appropriate for implementation in socio-culturally diverse contexts.