This chapter looks at concepts that have been used to understand the extent to which higher educational institutions are not inclusive at academic staff level, including the evidence as regards vertical and horizontal gender segregation. It suggests that the concepts tend to obscure the experiences of those who are differentially included in such higher educational organisations. However the proportion of women who are in academic positions in higher education in the EU is inversely related to level. Thus, women constitute 47% of academic staff in starter positions; 40% in mid-level ones and 26% of those in the equivalent of full professor. Horizontal segregation focuses on the identification of predominantly female and male areas – without recognising that these areas are differentially valued and that this has consequences. These gendered segregation patterns are typically explained with reference to women’s individual characteristics or priorities (an individual deficit perspective).