ABSTRACT

Strategy for most of its 2,500-year history has been one-dimensional. Warmongers have largely focused on avoiding wars without initiating them, and businesses were primarily concerned with building power and monopoly. In ancient China, great strategist and philosopher Sun Tzu's thoughts on strategy are carefully studied by business and military leaders today. The concept of competitiveness began to expand during this period as more powerful strategy models began to emerge in the form of the Porter five forces model and value chain model developed by Michael Porter. The fundamental reason for this proliferation was the Advancement in Technology, which drastically shifted the developed world from industrial-based to service-based. The Resource-Based View (RBV) makes a significant contribution to strategy by explaining the relationship between resources and firm performance. Emotion in strategic management has attracted increasing scholarly interest during the past years.