Various species of australopiths and other early ancestral relatives to humans are discussed in this chapter in terms of the hominin clad and phylogeny, with reference to diets and habitats of great apes and modern humans. Standard texts with updated material are included. Primate origins and relatedness, along with tool use are covered. Attention is paid to the diet of various species in line with frugivory, folivory, and insectivory. Early hominin morphology and physiology are reviewed in relation to great apes and modern humans. Particular attention is paid to australopith dentition, microwear, and isotope analysis in terms of vegetarian diets. Neither australopiths, nor great apes, nor humans are obligate carnivores. Man the hunter theory is examined and debunked in considering australopiths as prey, not predators. Neanderthal diet hybridity and cultural evolution are considered, along with those of early Homo.