To understand the Northern Ireland case, this chapter sets the stage by tying together several bodies of scholarship: education for peace and reconciliation; education for democratic citizenship; and education in postconflict and divided societies. This rich scholarship spans time, academic disciplines, and space. It is a meta-conversation. The enduring idea that education has the potential to instill desired behaviors and values in a society's youth as a means of social reproduction and/or maintaining social cohesion and stability is found throughout this conversation. Yet schools are imperfect vehicles for fulfilling these goals. This chapter reveals some of the challenges to this long-lasting model and highlights the role of teachers and the impact of curriculum change.