In most instances, the president’s ultimate goal when speaking about a policy is to sign a bill into law. Chapter 7 explains what motivates presidents to call on Congress and whether going public increases the president’s legislative success on immigration roll-call votes. To address these issues, the chapter codes whether presidents called on Congress in their public rhetoric, and then associate these calls with roll-call votes on immigration policy. Presidents are more likely to call on Congress when they are in danger of failing to succeed. Nevertheless, presidential attention to immigration does not increase presidential success on immigration roll call votes since 1953. These findings shed additional light on why immigration policy change through the legislative process has proven to be so challenging.