This chapter presents the conceptual framework that will be used to understand who are the key agents engaged with R2P’s circulation, what items do they exchange, through what channels of communication they operate and why they advocate for R2P. The chapter starts with the conceptual definitions of diffusion and circulation. Then it moves to the debates linked to the four main aspects of the circulation dynamic (who, what, how and why) and provides theoretical assumptions of the book. The key to understanding R2P circulation and advancement across diverse audiences and stakeholders is interconnectedness and reciprocity among these actors. The leverage is therefore not limited to one particular source (such as material power, reputation or research profile), but rather the ability of advocates to identify mutually beneficial outcomes. Besides laying the theoretical foundations, this chapter briefly explains the methodological approach of the book based on the case study of R2P and specific R2P ambassadors operating (since the 2005 World Summit till 2021) in various types of networks; complemented by a single case study of the crisis in Myanmar (2017–2021) to investigate the circulation politics in a specific context.