ABSTRACT

This chapter assesses how the advent of nuclear weapons impacted the conflict dynamics between India and Pakistan during 1998–2016. Overt nuclearization converted all-out wars into limited/wars and sub-conventional insurgencies making them new patterns of bilateral engagement. India and Pakistan used the sub-conventional crises as a means to resolve conflicts under the nuclear overhang. These patterns compelled the two states into the development of offensive technologies and war-fighting doctrines leading to the fragility of deterrence.