National integration, also known as state consolidation, refers to the process and result that the various components and elements that constitute a country form consistency and are in a relatively coordinated state, thereby creating a complete and stable political community. One of the most prominent tasks faced since the founding of People’s Republic of China is to realise the transformation of traditional rural society through national integration. Farmers demand that the state provide them with good services and require that government actions be more rational and legal. After the reform and opening up, the logic of rural tradition, state administration and the market economy dominated the peasant society at the same time, and the logic of the market economy increasingly became the dominant force and prompted farmers to respond to the country with an unprecedented positive and active attitude. The nationalisation of peasants and the peasant character of the country is a two-way and changing process. The nationalisation of peasants reflects the country’s integration of rural society, and the country’s peasant nature makes this integration process full of complexity and even drama.