The construction of a modern state is a two-way process of bottom-up concentration and top-down penetration of political power. The political organisation system composed of different levels of state institutions is a necessary condition to realise the concentration and penetration of power. After founding the People’s Republic of China, the political integration of rural society became the focus, so the country began to construct a political organisation system based on the fundamental changes in the economy and society. In terms of system structure, the bureaucratic characteristics of frontline political organisations became clearer after establishing a nationally unified political organisation and network of political organisations. Internally, through the extension of the political party to the countryside, the political party mobilised the peasants, transforming a traditional society led by the country gentry into a political society led and organised by a modern party.