The construction of a modern nation-state is a two-way process of high concentration and comprehensive power penetration. Based on extensive political mobilisation, a modern national state can be established. The large-scale political mobilization method is to form a social movement with the participation of many masses under the mobilisation, leadership and inspiration of the party elites. The state administrative mechanism influences and achieves the purpose of ruling the rural society through tasks, thus constructing the rural population’s national consciousness. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the penetration of the state into rural society has been greatly strengthened. One of the fundamental reasons lies in the transformation of rural society so that the organisational system of rural society is convenient for the implementation of tasks. A “one size fits all” (一刀切) administrative measure emerged in the transformation process. The rural reform that emerged in the late 1970s was fundamentally to change the “one size fits all” management system that was overly enforced by the state, and it was on this basis that rural social development embarked on a path of diversification.