This chapter presents the context for the study of Irish identity through the performance of language and gender, especially masculinity. This chapter goes from general-to-specific ideas, starting off with a brief overview on gender studies and identity, followed by how masculinity is performed through language, including the fictionalisation of Irish English. Then, the chapter delves into Irish masculinity and the different models of masculinity that will be described in this book: Heroes, lads, fathers, and other models.