This concluding chapter summarises some of the key themes in the book. It notes the gap that still exists between promise and performance, as socio-economic rights remain more in the imagination than in reality in Africa. The chapter reflects on conceptual and practical tools that could translate verbal human rights commitments into reality. It reflects on the role of the African Union and its members, calling on states to adopt a ‘basic-needs’ approach to governance. It argues that the primary obligation of the government is to promote human security; thus, states should facilitate economic and social conditions that reduce, if not eradicate, poverty. The chapter also reflects on the role of judicial and quasi-judicial institutions in advancing socio-economic rights in Africa, calling for a synergy between regional and national institutions. It finally reflects on the role of the international community writ large, calling on this ‘community’ to remain as a means to an end and to seek to advance global public goods.