This chapter first presents an analysis of the cultural differences between Byzantine and classical Ottoman/Turkish musics. Then historical changes in the Ottoman/Turkish makam and usul are presented along with the system devised by the author for his transcriptions. After a brief evaluation of the possible 19th-century transposition and instrumentation practices, the nature of the information included in notation is analyzed. This is followed by a discussion on how the changing values and morals in Ottoman society affected the repertoire that was included in Euterpe. The chapter concludes with findings regarding the composers and the repertoire.