The disturbances led to the imposition of emergency by the PM on 26 June 1975 which lasted till 1977. The Gujarat movement began earlier and as he himself says inspired him greatly. On 20 December 1973, students at L.D. Engineering College, Gujarat set fire to the college canteen, attacked the rector’s house; they were protesting against the mess fee hike. As for education, there was a string of recommended topics for rural schools, about courses on agriculture, law, literature, sociology, book keeping, gas plant, gram adalat, hygiene, compost, bacteria, biology, urine-manure all followed each other in a list. This ephemeral description of curriculum was supposed to be the foundation for a third way in socialism. JP seemed to be horrified by communist states, a horror not uncommon among socialists in what they called the free world, a horror that was amplified by cold war literature.