ABSTRACT

The range of sharp power methods is wide, as it primarily includes the same methods as soft power; however, the nature of their application is different. This chapter first examines the methods used in both soft power and sharp power: media agenda setting, strategic communication, work with opinion leaders, cultural exchange, people to people contacts, student scholarship programmes. Thereafter, the tools typical of the sharp power arsenal are examined: control of narratives, news ‘voices,’ synchronicity, spin doctoring, visual manipulation techniques, disinformation, propaganda, cultivating hatred and fear, and conspiracy theories.