ABSTRACT

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) has been involved in several sub-dimensions of Russian public diplomacy: promotion of the state’s image, religion diplomacy, cultural exchange, the defending of values, and public diplomacy during wartime. The Latvian Orthodox Church is subordinate to the Moscow Patriarchate and is the third largest Christian denomination after the Lutheran and Catholic denominations. The head of ROC, Kirill, has sided with the Kremlin in the context of the war in Ukraine; Kirill’s positioning creates anxiety about a possible misuse of Orthodoxy in Latvia to divide society.