ABSTRACT

Infusing engineering and technology in science and mathematics activities transforms the learning experiences of traditional science and mathematics inquiry from a focus on logical reasoning and explanations to a focus on problem solving. As discussed in Chapter 1, mathematics education has traditionally paid attention to specialising, conjecturing, justifying, and generalising; science education has traditionally valued understanding and explaining natural phenomena, while engineering concentrates on applying scientific knowledge to design and create solutions to real-world problems. How can we then weave the disciplinary knowledge, skills, and practices of engineering and technology with mathematics and science? Building on our discussion on disciplinary features and inquiry in Chapter 1, this chapter delves into instructional frameworks that can be meaningfully applied for planning of integrated STEM learning. To this end, the first section examines how mathematics and science practices can be extended to engineering practices detailed by NGSS, and the second section introduces three variants of the STEM Quartet instructional framework to guide the integration of various practices for integrated STEM inquiry.