In all three variants, problem-centric, solution-centric, and user-centric STEM learning, collecting data and working with evidence is fundamental. Exposing students to different types of evidence (such as observations or measurements) will increase students’ literacy of the relationship between the evidence and claims made. In vignette 4, we catch a glimpse of how Ms Tai transformed the familiar phenomenon of pigeon droppings into an integrated STEM inquiry lesson to involve students in designing ways to keep pigeons away from the school compound. Ms Tai and her colleagues planned activities for students to collect and use data to convince them that the large pigeon population in the school posed health threats. They also incorporated data collection as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of the prototypes developed.