Cloze activities have been used to teach and test comprehension for years. Margot makes a conscious effort to teach the parts of speech as she introduces words because this is a skill that can help students figure out the meaning of words by the use of sentence structure (syntax) and context. At the beginning of the year, the vocabulary development process is new and students’ attention spans are short. Students wiggle their thumbs in different directions; then gradually the majority of the thumbs point to the floor. Margot always guides students in writing their vocabulary journals. The students sit with their desks grouped together to form a horseshoe so all can see and feel part of the group. Anchor charts with words from previous weeks line the classroom walls. Leslie’s students also complete vocabulary journals, but they use a smaller, more compact version of the Frayer model graphic organizer to reflect their transition to the intermediate level.