ABSTRACT

During World War II, computing machines like the Z3 and Harvard Mark I were developed. One of the pivotal moments in computing history was the invention of the transistor in the 1950s. This invention, born out of human ingenuity, allowed computers to become smaller, faster, and more energy-efficient. This set the stage for personal computers in the 1970s, drastically changing how computers were used by making them accessible to the general public. The latest resurgence of AI started in the late 1990s, fuelled by developments in machine learning (ML) and deep learning. With more computing power, data, and improved algorithms, AI has made major strides in areas like image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and complex games. The advent of ML marked a significant leap in the development of AI's reasoning capabilities. Instead of rigidly adhering to hard-coded rules, AI systems can now learn from experience, much like a human would.