The rise of the regional dimension in planning and public governance in the UK has been irregular. But it has endured. False promise has recurred but, despite disappointments in practice, regional planning has been repeatedly revived by political circumstances and by social and economic necessity. Regional governance has a longer history. This chapter describes the course of initiatives in regional planningfrom 1909, tracing parallel initiatives in regional governance from the mid nineteenth century. Because developments in regional governance and in planning have been more closely related since the end of the Second World War, the account of administrative change since then is interwoven by connections with regional planning.