There has been a less continuous history of collective regional planning in the West of Scotland and the North West of England than in the South East and the West Midlands of England. Yet, as two of the UK's major metropolitan industrial regions, the West of Scotland and North West England have long suffered similarly adverse and extensive problems of economic and environmental regeneration. Their sustained problems might have been expected to stimulate collective regional initiatives, but those which have been internally fostered have been only spasmodic.