Then Jainism and Buddhism arose, one a little before the other, and they developed in the same regions, favoured by the same circumstances, in an environment only slightly Aryanized and still less Brahmanized. The evolution of Brahmanism, the phases of which we have briefly surveyed, at least in their scriptural aspect, took place during the conquest of Hindustan by the Aryans, from their arrival in the Punjab to the time when they reached the Bay of Bengal. The beliefs expressed in the J.ligveda were perhaps those of a people living on the fringes of Iran. The Sarp.hitas of the


and Buddha, is very strongly emphasized in Jain teaching. As ardently as the first Christians expected the imminent end of the world, the Gangetic sects of the sixth century declared the instability of the human condition and the misery of existence. The soul sinks in the universal flux like a boat which has shipped water; its destiny is to be carried along by the current not only without stopping but without belonging to itself. It is not, it becomes, and because it becomes and thinks that it is, it suffers. Not to belong to oneself is slavery. Suffering is equivalent to servitude. The Greek idea corresponding to Indian transmigration is not so much metempsychosis or palingenesis as the II avTa pEt: of Heracleitos.