ABSTRACT

Hereperceptionandinferencearenottheonlycorrect

modesofknowledge(pramii?y,a).Onemustaddanalogy (upamana},whichlikensanunknownobjecttoonealready known,andtestimony(sabda).Inferenceisofthreekinds. Itmaybepurvavat,drawnfromantecedents,aswhen, havingpreviouslyseenfirewheretherewassmoke,one againsupposesfireinthepresentcasewhereoneseessmoke. Itisieshavat,drawnfromtheconsequence,when,having observedthatonegrainofricehasbeencooked,oneinduces thatalltheothergrainsinthepothavebeencookedtoo. Itissamanyatodrishta,drawnfromacommoncharacter, when,havingadmittedthatinmanchangeofplaceimplies aprincipleofmotion,onesupposesthatthereissucha principleinthesunbecauseitchangesitspositionfrom easttowest.Ontheotherhand,itdoesnotfollowfrom thefactthatapeoplehasakingforitssupport,thatstates ofconsciousnesshaveasoulfortheirsubstratum,forthe connexionofthethinkingprinciplewithphenomenaisnot anobjectofexperience.