ABSTRACT

ThePunjab,onceaPersiansatrapyandthenaprovince ofAlexander,wastofinditselfstillmoreexposedtoattack, nowthatsmallerbutturbulentstateshadarisenatits doors.AfterDiodotosIandII,theKingofBactriana wasEuthydemos,whowenttowarwithAntiochosthe GreatofSyria.Peacewasconcludedwiththerecognition ofBactrianindependenceabout208.Butduringhostilities SyriantroopshadcrossedtheHinduKushand,enteringthe Kabulvalley,hadseverelydespoiledtheruler,Subhagasena. Demetrios,thesonofEuthydemos,increasedhisdominions notonlyinthepresentAfghanistanbutinIndiaproper, andborethetitleofKingoftheIndians(200-190).Between 190and180therewereGreekadventurersreigningatTaxila, namedPantaleonandAgathocles.From160to140,roughly, KabulandthePunjabwereheldbyapureGreek,Milinda orMenander,wholeftanameinthehistoryofBuddhism. About155heconqueredthewholeofthelowerIndusand Kathiawar,wagedwarinRajputanaandOudh,took Mathura(Muttra)ontheJumna,andevenreachedPataliputra.HewasseverelydefeatedbyPushyamitra,whowas thechiefdefenderoftheHinduworld,althoughtheterminationofhisnameinmitrahascausedsometosupposethathe wasofIranianorigin.Itshouldbeaddedthatbothin policyandinreligionorliteraturethisfirstSungastandsfor adefinitelyIndianreactionagainsteveryoutsideinfluence, andparticularlyforaBrahmanoppositiontoBuddhism, whichwithitsapplicationtomankindingeneralhadso stronglyappealedtothegreatestoftheMauryas.