A normative innovation-a new law, custom, bureau, association, or segment of a political party-frequently appears as the result of a norm-oriented movement.s Not all normative changes, however, are

preceded by a movement with generalized beliefs. In fact, all normative changes could be located on a continuum from those routinely incorporated to those adopted as a result of an agitation based on a generalized belief. At one extreme of the continuum is the example of a top business manager who reorganizes the sales department of his company simply by deciding to do so; such reorganization is not preceded by a period of agitation in the name of a cause. At the other extreme are outbursts such as the Townsend Plan movement which are replete with hysteria, accusations, exaggerated claims and myths of omnipotence.! Between the two extremes lie many movements which achieve their ends without ever developing generalized beliefs. An example is the gradual incorporation of women into the police forces of England and the United States.2 Later in the chapter we shall inquire into the conditions under which demands for normative change are likely to blossoln into agitations based on full-blown systems of generalized beliefs.