The Theory of Aggression
DOI link for The Theory of Aggression
The Theory of Aggression book
THE original theory of two distinct groups of instincts, the sexual and the ego instincts, opposed to each other in conditions of mental conflict, had sufficed to explain psychoanalytic observations of the simpler neuroses. But the recognition of narcissism, especially its role in hypochondria, psychoses, and organic neuroses, had pointed to certain inadequacies of this instinct theory. The Pleasure and Reality Principles had served to describe the purpose of instincts in the impulsion of most human reactions, but did not suffice to explain the repetition compulsions observed in some features of play, wartime shell-shock, and psychoanalytic treatmenU Another stimulus to a more comprehensive psychobiologic theory had been the increasing perplexity of psychoanalysts about the ramified phenomena of psychosexual sadism and masochism, and the relationship of these to other expressions of the sexual instincts. As a result of these further developments in the subject-matter of psychoanalysis, Freud, in 1920 (Beyond the Pleasure Principle), retracted his original theory that the sexual instincts (libido) and
ego instincts are primarily opposed and of different biological origin.