The Structure of the Total Personality
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The Structure of the Total Personality book
THE theories of instincts which we have discussed are hypotheses which explain quite adequately the dynamic forces whose effects are the actual phenomena observed in psychoanalysis and in life. The concept we are about to discuss is of a somewhat different order. It is not so much a hypothesis as an abstraction and a synthesis of the multitude of observations made. It bears much the same relation to the empirical data as algebraic symbols do to numbers. For the concept primarily gives generic names to several categories of psychological phenomena, to one or another of which general categories each isolated manifestation of the personality belongs. Secondarily, however, this new concept is hypothetical, in so far as these categories are considered as systems which control and organize the instinctual energies whose effects on mind and behavior we observe. This so-called "structure" of the personality corresponds roughly to the various systems of pipes and reservoirs of the hydraulic analogies we have previously used. (Figs. I and II, pages 99 and 102.)
A highly developed concept of personality stru~ture, the result of years of creative thought by Freud, was first published under the title The Unconscious 1 in 1915, and in 1923 was replaced by an entirely new theory in his book The Ego and the Jd. 2 These two
works were the foundation of modern ego psychology, the study and development of which has been the chief new interest of psychoanalysis for the last twenty-five years, and has led to a new and productive exploration of the unconscious determinants of the more highly integrated mental functions.