SPIRIT POSSESSION AMONG THE ZULU
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The first-hand data cited in this paper were obtained between 1951 and 1957 when I was investigating the incidence, nosology and aetiology of fits of screaming, so common among Zulu women that it is a relatively ordinary event to hear a young woman crying out 'hayi, hayi, hayi' or uttering yelping grunts for hours, days, or even weeks. Locally the usual explanation of this behaviour is in terms of the effects of love magic, and no state of possession is involved. But in the course of my research I found myself concerned, peripherally, but in both a therapeutic and investigatory capacity, with many sufferers from different kinds of possession. In addition, when I investigated the 'cryers' (persons claiming a history of the screaming) and contrasted them with a control group of women with no such record, quantitative differences appeared between the criterion groups' responses to questionnaires, a Thematic Apperception Test, etc. (Lee 1950, 1974, 1958, 1961), which threw light on the type of personality associated with possession, and some of this evidence is cited below. Its oblique nature is a direct reflection of my original intention to concentrate upon the modern 'crying' disorder and not to carry out an intensive investigation of spirit possession.